Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
1.11-1 Unlocking CO2 storage potentials for Germany
Tuesday, 05/Sept/2023:
10:00am - 11:15am

Session Chair: Gesa Kuhlmann, BGR
Session Chair: Sebastian Bauer, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
Location: Wiwi 108


10:00am - 10:30am
Invited Session Keynote
Topics: 1.11 Unlocking CO2 storage potentials for Germany

Legal framework for CCS – Overview and first lessons learnt

Johanna Kemper

Wintershall Dea AG, Germany

The advancement of CCS-techniques is a significant tool to mitigate climate change and achieve net zero emissions. On European Level, the CCS-Directive (2009/31/EG) provides for a legal framework for, i.a., exploration and storage permits for storage sites, monitoring during and after the operational phase, requirements for closure and transfer of responsibility. The member states and associated countries have implemented these rules into national legislation. This contribution aims to, firstly, provide an overview over the regulatory framework in Europe and exemplary member states. It seeks to, secondly, outline first practical experiences from individual approval processes and to, thirdly, draw conclusions for further implementation. In this part, the focus will be on the evolving legal framework in Germany, i.p. the necessary legislative steps and possible accelerating tools.

Wintershall Dea is actively involved in developing CCS-solutions: The first Carbon Storage Project “Greensand” marks a milestone, demonstrating how CCS can move across borders through an international infrastructure that connects emissions sources with storage capacities. In the first quarter of 2023, the leading consortium partners INEOS and Wintershall Dea received the storage license from the Danish authorities and concluded the pilot phase with a first injection in the world’s first cross-border, offshore CO2 storage project. Wintershall Dea holds or has a applied for further storage licenses in Norway and the Netherlands. This allows to tackle the procedural law issues targeted in this contribution from a practical angle.

10:30am - 10:45am
Topics: 1.11 Unlocking CO2 storage potentials for Germany

Exploring for CCS

Gesa Luise Netzeband, Susanne Kuchling

DGMK e.V., Germany

CCS has been identified as a key element for limiting global warming. The adoption of the EU Green Deal and other European regulation have made carbon capture and storage technologies an important part of the EU decarbonisation effort.

The technology has been established in a different contexts, but CCS is not yet a routine industry application and it requires upscaling, if subsurface storing of the hard-to-abate emissions and later on Carbon dioxide from DAC and BE are to make a difference in the emerging climate crisis.

Several studies assessing storage potential in Europe have been conducted identifying large potential storage volumes, while the decision-making process regarding the application of CCS is still ongoing in many countries.

Regardless of the outcome, for CCS to become a valid option in 2030, exploration has to start now, as thorough exploration and compiling nationwide portfolio of potential sites will take several years.

In this presentation, a possible route through the site development process is delinated, covering all aspects of safe and permanent CO2 injection from exploration execution to field development. Risk assessment and mitigation play a crucial role in this framework. In addition, project-specific parameters like reservoir parameters, drill sites and well paths and in addition to absolute storage volume, the storage capacity over time are discussed, providing key input for a comprehensive analysis leading to a balanced portfolio.

A systematic assessment of potential sites is the basis for selecting the optimal locations, constructing efficiently dimensioned plants and establishing a process of maximum safety.

11:00am - 11:15am
Topics: 1.11 Unlocking CO2 storage potentials for Germany

CO2 storage potential of the Middle Buntsandstein in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the German North Sea

Arne Fuhrmann, Stefan Knopf, Niklas Ahlrichs, Heidrun Stück, Felix Kästner, Hauke Thöle, Gesa Kuhlmann

Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover

The storage of CO2 in deeply buried geological formations provides an important contribution to mitigate residual emissions from heavy industry in order to limit global warming below 2 °C. Robust geological models and storage capacity estimations are crucial for the successful planning and implementation of long-term storage projects. This study focuses on the CO2 storage potential of the Middle Buntsandstein within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the German North Sea. We mapped a total of 69 potential storage sites based on existing 3D models, seismic data and 39 exploration wells. Static CO2 volumes are calculated for each structure using a Monte-Carlo-Simulation with 10.000 iterations to account for uncertainties. All potential reservoirs are evaluated based on their volume, burial depth, top seal integrity (thickness, faults) and trap type (salt-pillow and -domes, fault, stratigraphic and combined types). The best storage conditions are associated with salt-controlled anticlines on the “West Schleswig Block” with moderate burial depths, large volumes, and limited lateral flow barriers. Poor conditions are encountered in small, deeply buried (down to 7500 m), and structurally complex parts of the Horn- and Central Grabens. We identified 39 potentially technical feasible storage sites with burial depths above 4500 meters and suitable reservoir volumes (P50 confidence level above 5 Mt CO2). The estimated total static storage capacity ranges between P90 =948 Mt, P50 = 2695 Mt and P10 =5794 Mt. This comprehensive overview about the static CO2 storage capacities highlights the most prolific reservoirs and indicates locations for further exploration.