3:30pm - 4:00pm Invited Session KeynoteTopics: 3.20 Multiscale Investigations of Convergent Margins: Unraveling Subduction Dynamics from Kinematic Transitions to Metamorphic Reactions
Subduction and collisional orogenesis: comparison of model predictions and observations with application to the Alpine orogeny and Tibetan plateau
University of Lausanne, Switzerland
The Alps are one of the best studied orogens, but arguably also one of the most disputed ones. Several major geodynamic processes remain unclear, such as the mechanism of (U)HP rock exhumation, for example exhumation during plate divergence or syn-convergent exhumation, or the mechanism of subduction initiation, for example vertically forced initiation by gravitational sinking or horizontally forced initiation due to plate convergence. The Tibetan plateau is currently the highest continental plateau and its first-order geometry is well constrained. Spatial variations in topography and crustal thickness can be used to estimate horizontal forces per unit length from spatial variations in gravitational potential energy per unit area. Knowledge of forces and stresses is essential to understand geodynamic processes. However, maximal magnitudes of differential stresses occuring locally within the crust remain disputed and range from ca. 10 MPa to several hundreds of MPa. Deterministic mathematical modelling based on the fundamental laws of physics is one method to test different geodynamic hypotheses and quantify potential stress magnitudes. Here, we employ 2D petrological-thermo-mechanical numerical simulations to the Alpine orogeny to test the two hypotheses of horizontally forced subduction initiation and syn-convergent exhumation with a single simulation and with petrological and geochronological data. We use 3D mechanical numerical calculations for the Tibetan plateau, to quantify the impact of (i) a realistic double curvature of the Earth’s crust, (ii) the effective viscosity of the crust, (iii) the stress exponent of a power-law flow law and (iv) the plateau’s corner regions on the 3D crustal stress field.
4:00pm - 4:15pmTopics: 3.20 Multiscale Investigations of Convergent Margins: Unraveling Subduction Dynamics from Kinematic Transitions to Metamorphic Reactions
Rocks under stress: How dramatic the effect of stress on metamorphic reactions really is?
Heidelberg university, Germany
Recent decades have been connected with an impressively accelerating pace in the development and availability of new analytical techniques to earth scientists. Interestingly, the smaller the scale considered, the more heterogeneous an apparently uniform rock sample is. This heterogeneity is not only characterized by variation in chemical composition but also in mechanical properties. The mechanical effects may influence element transport and mineral assemblage in rocks which can, in turn, significantly control the mechanical-chemical coupling rates and mechanisms of various processes in the Earth’s interior.
Considering the interplay of metamorphic reaction and mechanical properties in our quantification approaches is critical for correct interpretation of observations in metamorphic rocks. In my contribution, I will show major applications of the new quantification approaches, the accompanying obstacles and the consequences for our petrological interpretations. New findings from coupled experimental and numerical studies emphasize the necessity of quantifying the stress/pressure distribution before any complex thermodynamic interpretations. In fact, any thermodynamic interpretation of a stressed system must take into account the locally-resolved state of stress during sample deformation.
4:15pm - 4:30pmTopics: 3.20 Multiscale Investigations of Convergent Margins: Unraveling Subduction Dynamics from Kinematic Transitions to Metamorphic Reactions
Combining Observations and Reactive Flow Modeling to Investigate Lower Crustal Hydration - Insights from the Hustad Igneous Complex, Western Norway
Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany
The grain-scale mechanisms of hydration of mafic lower crustal rocks are investigated on chemical maps of continuous rock sections (20 x 2 cm) of partially amphibolitized samples from the Hustad Igneous Complex in the Western Gneiss Region, Norway. The Proterozoic pyroxenite body and crosscutting dolerite dike enclosed in felsic gneiss that underwent (U)-HP metamorphism show different responses to the exposure to hydrous fluids along fractures formed during late Caledonian extension and exhumation. While the dolerite reaches full amphibolitization in a cm-scale reaction halo with a dm-scale transition zone, the pyroxenite has experienced previous metamorphism and is less affected by this event. Dissolution-precipitation reactions and slightly faster grain boundary assisted flow are identified as the main mechanisms of fluid flow through the rock. Limited element mobility is documented by grain-scale compositional gradients in forming amphibole from magnesiohornblende (Si6.8, Al1.6, Mg3.0) to tschermakite (Si6.4, Al2.0, Mg2.6) at boundaries with plagioclase. Phase diagram calculations yield a P/T-window between 650 – 730°C and 0.4 – 0.6 GPa for amphibolite formation. To better understand the mechanism of hydration, a numerical model of Darcy flow coupled to amphibolitization reactions was formulated based on mass conservation and local equilibrium. The simulations suggest the observed difference in front propagation distance is controlled by the main lithologies. A simple 2D model is employed to demonstrate that the gradual transition from dolerite to amphibolite can be achieved by implementing higher permeability along grain boundaries, supported by the observation that flow along boundaries continues before individual grains are fully replaced.
4:30pm - 4:45pmTopics: 3.20 Multiscale Investigations of Convergent Margins: Unraveling Subduction Dynamics from Kinematic Transitions to Metamorphic Reactions
Monazite and zircon petrochronology of granulites and migmatites as remnants of a magmatic arc on the West Gondwana margin (Socorro Nappe, south-eastern Brazil)
1TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany; 2University of São Paulo, Brazil
In the Southern Brasília Orogen (south-eastern Brazil), a nappe system that represents the roots of a magmatic arc records HT-UHT metamorphic conditions in lower to mid-crustal rocks. It is divided into two segments by a major shear zone, of which the northern nappe hosts the most extreme metamorphism and has been targeted for most petrochronological studies. These rocks carry insights into the stages of orogeny, as well as the first direct evidence of the paleo-active margin basement, and time-constraint (1) a metamorphism related to the magmatic arc consolidation on the active margin at 670-640 Ma and (2) an enduring UHT event related to collision and decompression at 630-590 Ma. The southern nappe (Socorro Nappe) hosts felsic and mafic granulites, and migmatites that apparently describe a less extreme pressure-temperature setting and relatively younger ages. We found distinctive patterns pertaining the inner nappe and its outward boundaries (Embu Terrane and São Roque Domain). We present new U-Th-PbC monazite data and LA-ICPMS U-Pb and Lu-Hf systematics in zircon retrieved from granulites, migmatites and paragneisses, and partial results on conventional thermobarometry and thermodynamic modelling. Our data plot within the P-T range of upper amphibolite to granulite facies and describe mostly post-peak retrograde clockwise trajectories, with lesser conditions at the nappe boundaries. Temperature, textural context and anatexis are major controls on the preservation of monazite versus zircon records. The outer nappe tends to host prominent 750 Ma-old monazite, whereas in the inner nappe such ages are scarce and most prevalent in the zircon records.